Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) and Follow-on Public Offerings (FPOs) are crucial events in the financial markets that allow companies to raise capital by offering shares to the public. In this article, we will delve into the basics of IPOs and FPOs, highlighting their key differences and shedding light on the processes involved. First let’s understand what is IPO and the process of an IPO.

What is an IPO?

An Initial Public Offering (IPO) is the first time a privately-held company makes its shares available to the public. Companies typically opt for an IPO to raise capital for expansion, debt repayment, or other corporate needs. During an IPO, the company issues new shares that are offered to institutional and retail investors through the primary market.

The IPO Process:

  • Preparation: The company prepares for the IPO by working with underwriters, legal teams, and financial experts. They draft a prospectus, a document outlining the company’s financial health, business model, and future prospects.
  • Underwriting: Investment banks act as underwriters, purchasing shares from the company at a negotiated price and then selling them to the public.
  • Roadshow: The company conducts a roadshow to market itself to potential investors, showcasing its strengths and growth potential.
  • Pricing: The final offer price is determined through a book-building process, where investors submit bids for the shares.
  • Listing: Once the shares are priced, they are listed on a stock exchange, making them tradable for investors.

What is an FPO?

A Follow-on Public Offering (FPO) occurs when a publicly-listed company decides to issue additional shares to the public. FPOs are often pursued to raise additional capital for expansion, acquisitions, or debt reduction.

Key Differences Between IPOs and FPOs

  • Timing: An IPO occurs when a private company goes public for the first time, while an FPO happens when an already public company issues additional shares.
  • Purpose: IPOs are primarily for companies seeking to raise capital for initial expansion, while FPOs are for already listed companies looking for additional funds.
  • Market Impact: IPOs tend to have a more significant impact on the market as they represent a company’s debut, while FPOs may have a more muted effect.


Overall, IPOs and FPOs play crucial roles in the financial markets, allowing companies to raise capital and providing investors with opportunities for investment. Understanding the differences between IPO vs FPO is essential for investors looking to make informed decisions in the stock market. If you are interested in exploring the world of stock trading and investments, consider using the BlinkX trading app.

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